Difference between Gene and Chromosome

Gene and Chromosome are two different terms but are very close to eachother.  A Gene is the name of a specific sequence of amino acids that is present on Chromosome. There are 20,000 to 25,000 genes in a human, which means if we separate all the genes present on all the chromosomes in a cell of a human, the number will be between 20,000-25,000.

Gene and Chromosome
Gene and Chromosome

Interesting right?

let us go more in advanced details.

Before You go more in details, just remember one thing. There is just one another thing comes between gene and chromosome. That thing is DNA. To remember this, remember a hack ‘GDC’. 

Yes GDC is a hack for You to remember. Let me explain, G for Genes D for DNA and C for Chromosome that means sequences of genes came out from DNA sequences and these DNA sequences combine to make a chromosome. Actually a DNA strand supercoils to make a chromosome, have a look at the diagram.


Gene and Chromosome differences in the table:

Gene Chromosome
1. It resides on chromosome It is a supercoiled and pack structure id DNA
2. Amino acids are building blocks. DNA nucleotides and histone proteins are the building blocks.
3. There is an estimated number of genes which is between 20,00 to 25,000 in a human There are exactly 46 chromosomes in a normal human being.
4. Exist at the nanoscopic level Exist at the microscopic level
5. There is a single gene on a single locus A single chromosome is composed of many genes.
6. Mutations can occur at a very minor scale. Mutations can occur at a larger scale.
7. It cannot be seen with a microscope. It can be seen with a microscope.
8. Have three types of mutations, insertion, base substitution (also called point mutation). And deletion Have four types of mutations, deletion, duplication, inversion, and rearrangement.

What is a gene?

What is a gene: A gene is a special sequence of DNA bases that code for proteins and these proteins are functional. A gene is responsible for carrying hereditary material from father and mother due to which we can observe characteristics of father and mother in their child.

Genes are a set of inbuilt instructions from father and mother that decides how the organism will look like in appearance. All these instructions residing in the gene are the genotype of that organism.

Gene vs Chromosome key differences to remember:

Gene vs Chromosome, there is a very basic and generic difference between them You’ve to keep in mind. A gene is a specific DNA sequence located on the chromosome, while a chromosome itself is made by the supercoiling of a long strand of DNA. All 46 chromosomes in a human body are made this way.

Chromosome Number:

Chromosome Number is different in all organisms. If we consider human, there are 46 chromosomes in a human that are residing in 23 pairs. These 23 pairs get divide equally into two cells when the cell is going to divide through mitosis. All this division of chromosomes can be seen with a microscope at metaphase.

Genotype and Phenotype, what they mean actually?

Genotype and Phenotype, the information residing in genes of a child that came from parents in the form of hereditary material is called Genotype and this information is going to decide the physical appearance of that child. The physical appearance of that child due to genotype is actually called Phenotype.

Phenotype Example:

Phenotype example are:

  • Hair color.
  • Eye color.
  • Nose shape
  • Jaw-line
  • Body language.
  • Skin color.
  • Sound of voice.
  • Size of beak & wing of a bird.
  • shapes and sizes of spots on a dog.

I hope You enjoyed reading this. stay tuned for more.

also read: difference between gene and allele

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