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Photosystem 1 vs Photosystem 2 Definition Differences and Comparisons

There are two multicomponent complex organometallic membrane systems that accept light with wavelengths of 700 nm and 680 nm, respectively.

Each photosystem is replenished by the electrons lost as a result of the secondary electron deficiency of an electron, but the source of the electrons is different for the PS II that obtains its electrons from the PS I by an electron transport chain, while the PS I, in turn, acquires its electrons from water.

Photosystems are required to take part in photosynthesis, and have roles in chlorophyll-containing thylakoid membranes of algae, cyanobacteria, and plants in particular. Everyone knows that plant and photosynthetic cells absorb sunlight, which is carried via chlorophyll molecules.

Energy received from light is first converted to chemical energy during the stage of photosynthesis. This process follows a series of chemical reactions, known as light-dependent reactions.

Phytochemicals like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids are found in the thylakoid membranes of the photosynthetic chlorplast. The photosynthesis system consists of light chlorophylls, proteins, and other pigments.

Photosynthesis excites these pigments after absorbing light, then an electron is promoted to a higher-energy orbital.

Excited pigment passes its energy to other pigment by the resonance energy transfer, and this is the actual transfer of electromagnetic interactions. Further, in turn, the neighbouring pigment transfers energy to pigment and the process is repeated many times.

To these pigment molecules, all the light’s energy enters into the core region of the photosystem known as a reaction center.

The Photosystem I or PSI protein is situated inside the thylakoid membrane and is itself composed of multiple subunits. The initial stage of the photo-driven electron transport process is the capture of the solar energy needed by the mitochondria.

What’s The Difference Between Photosystem 1 and 2

Photosystem 1 Photosystem 2
Have the ability to absorb wavelength of 700nm. Have the ability to absorb wavelength of 680nm.
Carries 6 electrons. carries 3 electrons only.
Exist in Stroma Thylakoid and granum. exist only in granum thylakoid only.
The ultimate product it produces is NADPH. No NADPH is produced as an ultimate product.
psaA and psaB are the 2 subunits it has. D1 and D2 are 2 subunits it has.
There is no occurrence of photolysis. Occurrence of photolysis exists.

Photosystem 1

PS I is the system where the chlorophyll and other pigments are gathered and absorb the wavelength of light at 700 nanometers. It is the series of reactions, and its reaction center comprises chlorophyll a-700, with the two subunits namely psaA and psaB.

The subunits of PSI is larger than those of P-SII. This system also contains (the chlorophyll a -670, chlorophyll a -680, chlorophyll a -695, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids). Startups absorbed the old wavelengths as they passed into the photosystem II reaction center. Eventually, photons become high-energy electrons and release a number of electron carriers before undergoing a series of electron carriers and finally arising from NADP reductase to NADPH, which becomes involved in the Calvin cycle.

As such, the major objective of this integral membrane protein complex is to use light energy to generate ATP and NADPH. Plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase also used as title for Photosystem I.

Photosystem 2

The protein complex consisting of more than 20 subunits and around 100 cofactors is a part of the light-receiving antenna. In the reaction center, light is absorbed with chlorophyll, carotenoids, and phycobilin becoming excited. The parts that are responsible for the absorption of light and chlorophyll, along with other pigments, are located at the core of chloroplasts.

As previously stated, the light transmitted through the left side of the PS II container is absorbed by P680. In this high-energy state of the electron, P680 donates an electron, which in turn becomes the primary acceptor.

When the P680 loses an electron and gains positive charge, it takes an electron for replenishment which is carried out by splitting waterpeices. Bacteria that oxidize manganese eightfold produce an oxygen molecule and two tackles (hydrogen ions).

The opposing mechanism is opposite in nature to the water-dissociated constituent of the photosystem II process in PS II, but water is utilized to synthesize NADPH and ATP. The Photosystem II is the same as water-plastoquinone dioxidase, and is also called the first protein complex in the light reaction.

Major Differences

  • Photosystem I is located on the outside of the thylakoid membrane and is paired to the special photo-resynthesis center called P700, whereas PS II is located on the inside of the thylakoid membrane and the reaction center called P680.
  • Phtosynthetase 1 acquires the hues light which is a profoundly highlighted array, while the photosynthetase 2 converts hues that are progressively watered down.
  • The cyclic photophosphorylation that takes place in polypeptide syntheses is carried out by PS I, and the non-cyclic photophosphorylation that takes place in polypeptide syntheses is carried out by PS II.
  • The primary function of this system is the synthesis of NADPH from PS II, where it receives electrons from PS II. The PS II organ performs the hydrolysis of water as well as the ATP synthesis process.
  • The core part of the PSI are composed of the psaA and psaB subunits, and PS II is made up of the D1 and D2 subunits.
  • Photosystem I or PS I and Photosystem II or PS II are the major protein-mediated complex, whose main purpose is to produce energy (ATP and NADPH2), which is used in the Calvin cycle.
  • It begins with P700, chlorophyll, and other pigments; PS II is the reaction that absorbs light energy, involving P680, chlorophyll, and other accessory pigments; and water, which is broken down into protons (H ) and oxygen molecules through the dissociation of water molecules.


We can say that in plants, photosynthesis involves two major processes: the light-dependent reactions and the carbon assimilation reaction that is given misleadingly the moniker of dark reactions. In the light reactions, the photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll absorb light and turn into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and NADPH.

Vertical Vs Horizontal Laminar Flow Definition Differences and Comparison

A Laminar flow cabinet is an enclosed workstation that has been utilized to create a safe work environment through filtration devices to capture everything flowing through the cabinet in biological research laboratories.

There are two main types of it which are horizontal and vertical laminar flow hood.

In a laminar-flow system, air moves at the same rate and in the same direction, with no or minimal crosswind. By contrast, turbulent low pressure affects a swirl of air, distributing contaminants onto surfaces at random and unpredictable.

Most contaminant-sensitive environments, such as healthcare facilities or clean rooms, call for laminar airflow because it reliably moves contaminants in a uniform direction, from the cleanest area near the filter face to the exit area, which could be the sash opening or the vents along the back or bottom of cabinets.

The design ensures that the most cleaned (and germ-free) zone will be in the area closest to the filter’s face, where the chore is usually done. Work is often done in that zone, close to whatever sabotages or creates turbulence.

related: microscope labeled parts and diagram

Difference Between Vertical and Horizontal Laminar Flow

It directs air downward vertically.It gives direction to air horizontally.
It covers a small surface area in the laboratoryIt covers larger surface area than Vertical Laminar Flow.
Provides less room for operations.Provides a larger operational room.
Chances of contamination are little to no.Chances of contaminations are higher.
In most cases, it is suitable in pharmaceutical industries.It is mostly used in industries working at macro-levels.
It requires very little to no repositioning for rear access due to its compact size and shape. Repositioning is done for every time rear access is needed which is sometimes not work friendly.
Due to its small size there are little chances scientist’s face get harm due to accidental blow.There are higher chances the scientist’s face get harm in case of lab accidents.
Microbes are transferred to a top or bottom portion of the enclosure using the machine. This equipment then filters the contaminants that float around inside it.It blocks airborne particles, using an air-flow direction that is vertical. The HEPA filter is installed on the work surface’s back side, which Creates a clean environment in the work area.

Horizontal Laminar Flow

A cabinet with a Horizontal laminar flow style is the best option in situations where space is limited because the fan filter module can be nested inside the cabinet.

A horizontal-flow filtration system requires much more legroom in the rear of the cabinet than a vertical-flow system, since the chambers at the back of the cabinet require clearance from the back. These requirements necessitate a deeper bench and more floor space.

Both airflow patterns provide effective sweeping action near the filter edge, their respective patterns eventually encounter blockages that often tip the scale in favor of one or the other setup. A vertical-flow cabinet is a clear obstacle.

An perforated work surface permits the laminar air flow to go through the cabinet with minimal restriction, but lips can be an issue if liquids are flowing or the work needs small parts. If you plan on working in this manner and do not want to pick up off the bottom of the products, a horizontal flow design will probably be more suitable.

Even a high-powered top may not rule out vertical flow if the tasks are carried out above the work surface. If sterile or particle-sensitive process are completed in a captivating, immaculately clean spot halfway between the work surface and the distinct range cover, a vertical flow cabinet is usually sufficient.

One simple procedure is sterile preparation, in which sterile medications or packages are prepared above, rather than on,the work surface. As long as hands and other contamination sources proceed up and down, not sideways over a sample, sensitive materials will remain clean.

In spite of the fact that air travels in a horizontal method through the laminar flow cabinet, it does not encounter very large problems due to the cabinet’s laminar airflow. Eventually, it does have an impact on the operator, however, whether they are performing a task or not.

Any toxic substances, such as buffing fluids or fine dusts, could be blown into the operator’s face. This blocking effect could interfere with productivity, but, if poisonous powders or fumes are involved, it may be a hazard to your health and safety. In such situations, it is recommended that air flow be set up as low as possible.

Vertical Laminar Flow

Vertical flow cabinets designed to resemble a cleanroom may use laminar flow for particle removal. Because they direct the flow downward, vertical flow helps sweep particles out of the area.

Microparticles may not have substantial mass, but just about all particles eventually settle on a surface or a floor of a room, and along walls they move vertically.

Vertical laminar flow hoods are frequently chosen because they resemble the design of a laminar flow clean room, during which fan filter units are usually located above the walkway. By directing laminar flow downward, vertical laminar flow increases the effect of gravity and sweeps particles out of the room, typically through a front doorway. Micro-contamination is a side effect.


Laminar flow hoods are imperative to ensuring that sensitive products placed below the hood suffer little to no contamination, and are for instance utilized in the kitchen to keep oils and fats from clogging the ducts. flow hoods are offered in two different configurations: horizontal and vertical. Both configurations provide effective sweeping action throughout the work area and meet ISO Class 5 cleanliness standards, ensuring that your task will be effective at preventing unwanted contamination.

Difference Between Innate and Acquired Immunity


The human body typically contacts to millions of harmful pathogens everyday within 24 hours but still not get harmed by them, its just because of immunity it has.

A normal human body has two basic categories of immunity which are innate and acquired immunity.

The two can have a huge impact on a individual’s well-being but also come in a variety of visual functions. The most important distinction between them is the phase of their occurrences.

The main difference between both is that Innate is part of our DNA from birth, comes into play when our bodies are first exposed to pathogenic infections. In contrast, adaptive immunity is attained over time as the system is exposed to a wider disease variety.

This primary immune system function is to constantly halt the progression of pathogenic bacteria within the body. As a result, it has a fast and nonspecific method of action.

Another function relating to adaptive immunity for the long term is systematic identification of the root pathogen, which takes a lot of time. The results are specific but come later.

Innate immunity identifies foreign antigen but does not recognize it, thus the response only lasts for a brief period. On the other hand, adaptive immunity takes longer, because of its capacity to remember the pathogen,  the response is sustained due to the generation of memory cells.

innate immunity and adaptive immunity difference

relates: humoral and cell mediated immunity

Innate Immunity And Adaptive Immunity Difference

Adaptive Immunity Innate Immunity
The resistance that builds up with the passage of time after constant exposure to numerous types of pathogenic organisms. The immunity that start working from the time a human is born to the time he/she lives. It is not developed due to pathogenic penetrance in the body, its exists from day first of life.
It is also called as second line response as it gives response in long run. It is also called as first line response as it gives response within 96 hours to the pathogens.
Sometimes required external chemicals to get activated, like vaccines for viral infections. It does not require any external chemical to get activated and get activated automatically after a pathogen enters.
If not fully knock down the infection but keep its symptoms suppressed throughout years. It can knock down the disease within a week.
It actively suppress the infection’s symptoms. It suppresses the symptoms at initial infectious stage.
it is more complex than innate type immunity. It is simpler as compare to the Adaptive type immunity.
It does not pass onto generation through heredity. It passes to generation through heredity.
Many allergic response cases has been reported in the history. Never reported to generate allergic response in the body.
Has high defensive potential. Has low defensive potential.

How Adaptive Immunity Works

Sometimes a foreign substance is able to gain an advantage over our natural defenses. Therefore, a special targeting technology for killing the particular size bullet is usually required. This targeting technology is the Adaptive Immunity of our body. Acquired immunity, which has the appeared millions of years ago, was devised for vertebrate animals. Active immunity, which is not seen in lower organisms, is only unique in vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is not part of our biological systems at birth, and we develop it only gradually during the life span from exposure to different antigens. This exposure leads to the development of immune system receptors which participate fully in our defense against disease.


Some cells possess distinctive markers to identify the self-and non-self antigens. And to notify immune machinery to not attack those people who are self-. While telling it to give rise to a reaction against those individuals considered to be non-self. This wholly distinctive property is referred to as immune tolerance. Our immune system is there to safeguard our cells from bacterial or parasite assault. It could also block them from our own molecular assault. This situation may give rise to some autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis.

Acquired immunity develops a specialized reaction to the antigen, creating an antibody-mediated response. The immune system carefully determines the antigen, making acquired immunity less general. The immune system has the potential to create a wide range of antibodies, allowing the immune system to identify different forms of protein. It is an extremely important attribute of our immune system to be able to learn the first exposure to an antigen. This helps with hastening our response to repeating the condition.

Types of Adaptive Immunity

Active Immunity

This is the biological response that an individual directly develops in response to a viral or parasitic stimulus. Here, the body generates antibodies either by an infection or by vaccination. While this process is very effective, it is a protracted method that generates antibodies to a particular antigen. It is a continuous and powerful immune response.

Passive Immunity

Passive immunity involves our intake of already made antibodies within our body. It provides an immediate deterrent for a disease’s spread. Antibodies are may need to be directly administered to an individual to obtain an enhanced immune response. Even though it’s a straightforward process, it can on occasion bring about issues as well.

How Does Innate Immunity Work

Our body keeps in contact with potentially hazardous, infection-causing agents regularly. Our body does not have time to pause and analyze the matter and then respond. Through that lapse in reaction, the threat might be strengthened and proliferate in an exponentially more overwhelming fashion. To guard against such a possibility, the body is equipped with an inborn defense mechanism, known as the innate immunity. This evolutionary biological immunity is present in nearly all multicellular organisms, including invertebrates. It is an immunity that acts as a first barrier line of defense in opposition to foreign antigens.


The very basic and important role of this immunity type is to stop the disease at the present stage and not allow it to move forward and make further immune damages to the body.


The innate immunity type exist in human body from the time when human born. It does not develop after pathogenic encounters as th active immunity type does. 

It does not allow pathogenic buildups and eliminate them altogether using its high spectrum responses.


The innate immunity prevents the entry of pathogens into our bodies. As this danger enters inside, our immune system focuses on halting its growth. As well as preventing the development of the infection, it also effectively dehydrates the cellular debris of the host and pathogen.

The response is complex and is generated by the pattern recognition molecule (PMR). These PMRs express a broad spectrum response towards foreign invasion. It strives to eliminate the foreign antigen. Thereby impeding the development of infection up until the development of specific adaptive immunity occurs.

Relationship Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity Systems

To optimize adaptive responsiveness, innate defenses are crucial. Anatomical and physiological obstacles are present during the initial reaction phases. Phagocytic and inflammatory responses occur once the antigen enters. These second-stage responses lead to an adaptive immune response, as requested innate immunity time permits. An adaptive response is only feasible along with innate immunity provision of the time to recognize the antigen.


Immunity works as a protective measure against a certain amount of death by averting a wide range of diseases. This defense is of both innate and adaptive types. It’s present from birth and is composed of nonspecific and faster reactions. The adaptive one is attained by the body as exposure to antigens progresses. Prompt but slow reactions result from it.

Digestive System Of Earthworm, Organs, Anatomy Physiology and History

Earthworms are hermaphrodites, which means they have male and female reproductive parts. Earthworms lay eggs in cocoons. After mating, the egg begins dividing until it’s four cells long. At the specified time, earthworm cells include distinct elements.

Gene expression has gone on so far that cells would not be able to make a full creature and is left to evolve on their own.

In digestion, swallowing is followed by the digestive organs, which are distinguishable from the esophagus since they are ringed by larger ventricles with wide arteries. The crop-gizzard is also partially covered in cream-colored seminal vesicles of the reproductive tract.

Earthworm Anatomy

The earthworm anatomy essentially consists of an elongated, cylindrical body that is metamerically segmented. A thin cuticle, epidermis, and musculature makes up the body wall. The body cavity is a true coelom, as it is lined by the coelomic epithelium.

There are four classes of cells found in the coelomic fluid; phagocytes, mucocytes, rounded nucleated cells, and the chloragogen cells.

The circulatory system for the terrestrial worm is closed type, consisting of blood vessels and capillaries that are distributed all over the body. The plasma and corpuscles comprise the blood, and it has multiple hearts. The earthworm is a hermaphrodite, and reproduction is strictly sexual.

The three kinds of the particular earthworm include pharyngeal, integumentary, and the septal sort. The earthworm is an invertebrate that has an elaborate central nervous system with a very simple brain and nerve cord.

Image Source:

Earthworm Digestive Tract and Organs

An earthworm turns into a staple muncher as it digests dead and decaying plant and animal matter in the soil. All this it do with mouth, buccal cavity, Esophagus, Larynx, Pharynx, Crops, Gizzard, Intestine, and gizzard.

  • The mouth of an earthworm, also called prostomium, is a circular opening present at the front end of the first segment. The mouth leads to its buccal cavity. Food is ingested through the mouth.
  • Pharynx is a small, swollen, thicker-walled pear-shaped space that takes up only the forthright part of the 3rd organ. It is wider than the pharyngeal cavity and set apart from it using constriction. It has a pharyngeal preputial gland that is situated in the lower end of the secretory orifice of the pharyngeal gland. The pharyngeal gland produces saliva, which consists of the proteolytic enzymes, proteinase, and mu.
  • The esophagus extends from the section between the 5th and 7th ribs to the gizzard without including a gland and disposes of the food pieces that come up from the pharynx. It then reaches the gizzard.
  • The earthworm gizzard is a hard oval, thick-walled, and extremely muscular organ lying in the 8th or 8th-9th segment of the alimentary canal. It is the hardest portion of the food pipe due to the parts of the cuticle on the inner lining.
  • This short, thin-walled, vascular structure is known as the stomach. It lies between the 9th and 14th segments from the ridge and is wider than the esophagus. There is a gland in the stomach that helps to digest nutrients. The stomach leads to the intestine. Saliva produced by the salivary glands in the stomach secretes proteolytic enzymes that aid in digestion of proteins.
  • The intestine is a long and thin-walled tube that extends from the 15th to the last segment except for the anus. The inner lining is ciliated, vascular, folded, and glandular. It is the intestinal lining that is folded to form villi. One villus becomes larger and more developed than the other and runs mid-dorsally from the 27th to the last 25th segment.

Earthworm Digestive System Physiology

Earthworms frequently nourish in various types of organic decompositions, such as decomposing leaves and microorganisms. They typically feed on grasslands or the plants that make up native environments.

During eating, the oral cavity is expanded out by the operation of protractile and retractile muscles, and the food enters the mouth. The meal enters the pharynx via the buccal cavity. The dorsal chamber of the pharynx contains the pharyngeal gland made up of chromophil cells that generate saliva and mucin.

Mucin lubricates the meal and transforms it into soft food while protease changes protein into amino acids. The dehydrated meal moves down the gullet. There, it is crushed by the swell of gizzard muscles.

Food’s ground material goes into the stomach where the breakdown of nutrients by secreting enzymes takes place. Here, the complete breakdown of organic substances into amino acids occurs. In the small intestine, however, the flocculation of undigested food appears and the intestinal tubes create amylase which changes starches into sugars.

Digestion mainly occurs in the intestines and the food it absorbs is transported by way of the villi. The bloodstream carries it by way of capillaries. Afterwards, another reason why it stays in your body is the throwing out of the undigested meal through the anus.

History of Earthworm Digestive System Discovery

In the 1830s, captains Edward Bailey and D. Baker experienced a blast located in Michigan known as the “Tartar Trot,” yet they hadn’t at any time yet connected it to the digestion procedure. That is exactly where Army Surgeon Dr. William Beaumont located it in the year 1822.

In Beaumont’s time, stomach digestion was demonstrated to be strictly chemical, the result mostly of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. This was dismissed only by Beaumont himself. This confirmed his idea of the stomach and ushered in his fame.

How Much Do Earthworm Eat

It is notices that worm can eat equal to their weight and some worms noted to eat half of their weight in a day.

How Much Do Earthworms Weigh

Earthworms weigh between 20-26 grams, also there are some worms seen who overeat and weigh more than their normal weight.


The most essential system for the earthworm is the biochemical system. The prostomium in earthworm has strong lips along with pear-shaped buccal cavity.

There are no jaws or teeth, and the earthworm uses the muscle tissue of the pharynx to break down food that the body uses to obtain energy. The lips then break it down into smaller pieces and use soil particles to grind it to a fine powdered form. Food that has gone through this process is then passed from the mouth to the pharynx.

Energy Pyramids Ecology, Definition, Levels, Examples, Importance & Limitations

Energy Pyramid also titled as ecological pyramid or trophic pyramid are a graphical illustration of relationships among various organisms in an ecosystem. The pyramid is divided into a number of bars, each with a different trophic level.

It is a graphical representation of energy circulation in an ecosystem is known as a power pyramids.

The nature of the bar sequence is based on who feeds, on who feeds. It is the mainstream of the energy transfer in the ecosystem. Energy rises from the pyramid’s base, where we have producers, upward. The altitude of the bars is typically the same. Nevertheless, each bar has its own length depending on the nature of the corresponding element.

The energy in each trophic level is inversely proportional to the depth size, and the height of each bar is always the same. The energy flow shifts through layers of the energy pyramids, moving from bottom to top, and is further dissipated as energy is used by the organisms at each trophic level.

An energy pyramid is a useful tool in energy imbalance evaluation between organisms in a food chain. Energy is greater near the bottom of the pyramid, but it decreases as you move upward through the trophic levels.

The shape is important in energy flow understanding because it shows how the energy is utilized & squandered throughout ecosystem.

image source:

Energy Pyramid Trophic Levels

Energy pyramid primary level contains producers and energy available within them. These are mostly autotrophs that make their own food by harnessing energy from sun. These are typically photosynthesizing plants.

These organisms convert photons into carbohydrate molecules. Some plants get their energy from direct sunlight exposure and convert to simple sugars. These organisms include earthworms, which biosynthesize their food through fungi.

However, energy that mushrooms and earthworms obtain from soil is, in the majority of circumstances, less than the energy that green plants obtain from sun. That is, the energy that embedded in the dirt undergoes an additional filtering process when providing the energy to plants, and as a result, a robin that would eat a worm, for instance, would get less energy than it would if it consumed a berry instead.

At lower energy levels or the pyramid basis, we only have heterotrophs organisms that get their food from organic carbon, normally from other organisms.

the second energy pyramid stage is occupied by primary consumers, usually herbivores. Herbivores consist only of animals that feed on vegetation. The plants themselves are dependent on the sun for energy and inspiration.

This helps facilitate the transfer of solar energy between trophic levels. Human beings depend to a lesser extent on primary sources, but this level is crucial for the health of the ecosystem. Otherwise, the system will not work.

The third level of the pyramid is known as secondary consumers, and they’re the carnivores. Secondary consumers are organisms that rely on primary consumers for their nutrition.

Without consumers, the omnivores would not exist. In this level, distributed energy originally given to primary consumers is now transferred to this level. This facilitates the suitable circulation of the energy for usage.

The amount of solar energy that varies depending on the quantity of energy delivered to plants.

The last pyramid level comprised of tertiary consumers. This is secondary level carnivores that feed on both the primary and secondary consumers. The circuitry has a total sum of power at this exit level.

Plants do not always utilize most energy in atmosphere, such as groundwater, other water bodies. It is essential that all energy pyramid level get the level of energy demanded to ensure the stability of planet earth.

At each level pyramid, decomposers perform a crucial function. These include bacteria, worms, and fungi, which break down the bodies of other organisms and their products. These decomposers also use the small amount of residual energy in the bodies of deceased organisms.

Examples of Energy Pyramids


Grasshoppers consume grass for energy. it in return provides energy to frogs in next level pyramid. Snakes then obtain their vitality from frogs and so on.


An earthworm breaks down dead organic material that’s in soil, which provides nutrients the building blocks for plants, which live in sunlight on two different pyramid levels.

Herbivores in subsequent layer of hierarchy, in turn, make use of stored power in plants by feeding off these plants. The energy found in excrement coming from herbivores goes into system again and is broken down from there by earthworms.

Importance and Limitation of Energy Pyramids


Feeding various organisms in several environments is displayed.

Energy value flow/transfer is shown.

Ecosystem condition may be assessed, and any resulting damage can be prevented.


Several species may occupy various food chain levels, such as food web. The system does not take food webs into account.

Pyramids are not counted among the parts of the ecosystem that includes the saprophytes, even though they are important parts of that ecosystem.

The logic of a simple food chain is limited to necessities that are more valuable than those eaten, such as grits and leafy greens. These pyramids only provide clarity to simple food chains, which rarely unfurl naturally, during which time weather changes and seasons don’t affect insects.

They do not focus on dynamic existence status of species at various elevations.


Some decomposers and detritavores in process of breaking down organic matter in accordance with sequence of energy pyramid disperse nutrients to soil and return nutrients to base of hierarchy, thus playing a major role in framework of carbon and nitrogen cycles.

Microscope With Labeled Parts and Functions

Microscope is a revolutionized scientific instrument which is used in research laboratories to examine the small objects that are not clearly visible and can’t be seen by the naked eye. They are derived from Ancient Greek words “mikrós skopeîn” as mikrós means “small” and skopeîn mean “to look” or “see”.

Microscopes are frequently utilized to research the fungi, microscopic algae,, and other minor life forms. It has its own magnification power and made up of lenses for the magnification. It depends on the type of the lens that it will increase the illustration according to its focal strength. They can see the very small objects and distinct their structural differences, for example the view of the plant and animal cells, viewing of the microscopic bacterial cells.

Microscopes are usually made up of basic parts for holding and supporting the whole body of it and its components and the ocular parts which are used for magnification and viewing of the sampling images.

This Instrument make objects such as cells, microorganisms, viruses, and microorganisms visible to human eye by making larger enough images, so they can be examined and researched.

Types of the Microscope

There are different types of it such as transmission electron microscopes (TEMs), scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), atomic force microscopes (AFM), near-field scanning optical microscopes (MSOM or SNOM, scanning near-field optical microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopes (STM).

However, the optical for of it is one the most common and famous type.

Microscope Parts list

Microscope Parts list

There are three different structural parts of this optical device

  1. Head
  2. Base
  3. Arms


Head is also known as the body of this machine as it brings the optical parts in the upper part of the microscope.


It support the whole apparatus body, and brings the microscopic incandescent light.


The part that protrudes from the base is used to carry eyepiece stem. It is used to support the head of the microscope and is also used to carry it.

Some high-quality microscopes have a segmented arm with more than one joint. It allowed more movement of the microscopic head for high quality viewing.

Optical parts and the functions 

The optical parts of the microscope are used to view, enlarge, and produce an image from a sample placed on a slide. These parts include


Eyepiece also contains ocular lens. It enhance the image of the viewer. This part is used for checking through the microscope. Eyepiece is found at the upper part of it. Its standard magnification is 10x with an optional eyepiece and having magnifications from 5X to 30X.

Eyepiece Tube:

It’s the eyepiece holder. It brings the eyepiece directly above the objective lens. Some binoculars have eyepiece tubes that can be easily rotated to achieve maximum magnification. For monocular microscopes, they are none flexible.

Objective Lenses

Three are 3 or 4 objective lenses on a microscope .These are the some main lenses that are used for specimen visualization. They have a magnification power of 40x-100X. There are about 1-4 objectives lenses attached to one microscope, in which some are front-facing and others are opposite-facing. Lenses have differing magnification Capacities.

Nose Piece

A turret is sometimes called a nose piece. It holds the objective lenses. It is movable and it revolve the objective lenses that depends on the magnification power of the lens.

The Adjustment knobs

There are two types of Adjustment knobs, i-e fine adjustment knobs and coarse adjustment knobs. It is used to focus the microscope.


This is the segment in which the specimen is placed for viewing. The slides are held in place with clips. As the mechanical stage the most common stage, which allows the control of the slides by moving the slides using the mechanical knobs on the stage instead of moving them manually.


There is a hole on the stage of the microscopes. The transmitted light reaches through this to stage.

Microscopic illuminator

It is the microscopes light source, located at the base. It is used instead of a mirror. It captures light from an external source of a low voltage of about 100v.


These lenses that are used to collect and focus light from the illuminator into the specimen.


          It controls the light that passes through the specimen.


Light source

          It provides light for viewing the specimen.


It Include components structurally and optically for the itself, as well as their components, to operate magnification and imaging of specimen images. This describes the portions of a it has and the functions they perform to allow visualization of specimen images.