Human Genome Project in the acronym HGP, an international research project. Its main objective was to determine the sequence of nucleotides that make up DNA and identify 20-25 thousand genes in the human genome. This project is called the largest international cooperation ever held in biology.
It is an important step for human beings to explore their own mysteries. The strategies, ideas, and technologies established by the “HGP” in the study of humans constitute a new discipline in the field of life sciences-genomics, which can be used to study microorganisms, plants, and other animals.
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Human Genome Project, it was planned for a 15-year plan starting in 1990 and ending in 2005, but was completed in 2003, two years earlier due to the expansion of international cooperation and advances in biological technology and computer technology.
Human Genome Project performance:
- More than 95% of the human genome is a fragment of DNA whose function is unknown, and the gene with the actual function is very small, about 1.1% of the genome.
- The number of human genes is about 20,000 to 25,000, much less than the 100,000 expected.
- The rate of mutation in cell division (meiosis) that occurs in the process of producing germ cells is twice as high as that of women.
Results of Human Genome Project:
- When the human genetic map is completed, basic information necessary for human growth and disease research is obtained.
- It is used as basic information to study mutations in human genes.
- Study genetic differences among races around the world.
- It is used as data to study the evolutionary process of humans.
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Purpose of Human Genome Project:
The purpose of the Human genome project is to identify the types and functions of human genes and identify the causes of diseases. Genetic information found in this way is that it can be used for disease diagnosis, prevention of incurable diseases, development of new drugs, and personalized treatment.
The objectives of the project were:
- Save the information in databases.
- To identify the approximately 100,000 human genes in the DNA.
- Develop tools for data analysis.
- Decide the sequence of 3 billion chemical bases that make up DNA.
- Develop sequencing technologies quickly and efficiently.
- Settle ethical, legal and social issues arising from the project.
Human Genome Project advantages: You can see what task a specific gene plays in the human body. The period of scientifically explaining human biological properties such as height and skin color is opening. By selecting up the diseased gene and inserting the normal gene instead.
Due to all this, the era of the incurable disease can be comfortably treated. Also due to the pre managed database of personal genetic information, it is possible to efficiently transplant organs. The emergence of tailored humans tailored to the individual genotypes of science fiction films is also expected.
Disadvantages of Human Genome Project: Human dignity is ignored. Artificial genetics can be performed on a human embryo or a fetus in the stomach that does not have a gene that parents are satisfied with. It can be used in the database of genetic information.
Genetic experiments are likely to damage non-human organisms. As the human life span extends to 150, it is highly likely that the aging society and population problems due to low birth rates will be serious.
The HGP was aimed to have a better eye on the whole gene sequences existing in the whole human DNA or genome. Scientists believed that the successful conclusion of the whole human genome OR having an exact genome mind map can open certain ways towards making modern medicines for untreatable diseases in humans. Also, this project not only opened ways in medical technology but also poped new study fields in biology as bioinformatics which is now completely operational as a leading cutting edge technology in the biology market.
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