The difference between autosome and sex chromosome is that autosomes are chromosomes that possess the whole genome except the genome that is sex-related. While sex chromosomes are those chromosomes that decide the sex of the organism either it is male or female. In humans there are X and Y are sex chromosomes.
Chromosomes are actually packed form of DNA and we can also say that the whole genome exists in the form of chromosomes. in humans there are a total of 23 pairs of chromosomes and that is 46 in non-pairs.
Difference between autosome and sex chromosomes one by one:
|1.||It possesses most of the genome.||Only a little of a genome exist in it.|
|2.||These are highly responsible for the determination||These are responsible for the determination of the sex-type of the organism.|
|3.||These are numbered from 1 to 22||These are numbered by alphabetic letters|
|4.||Male and female possess the same copies of autosomes.||Male and female possess differentiated in behavior, size,|
|5.||It reflects the mendelian inheritance.||It reflects non-mendelian inheritance.|
|6.||These are residing in the cell in the form of homologous.||Thes are homologous in females while non-homologous in males.|
|7.||Has a variable number of genes from 200-2000.||X chromosome consists of more than 300 genes while the Y chromosome consists of a few genes.|
|8.||Autosomes have the same centromere location in them.||
The location of the centromere is different.
|10.||Most probably present in all eukaryotes.||Absent in prokaryotes.|
What are Autosomes?
Other name of sex chromosomes is called Allosomes. These are chromosomes that function differently than other chromosomes and are different in size and behavior from autosomes or other chromosomes. Allosomes are chromosomes that decide the sex of the organism either male or female.
In 23 pairs of human chromosomes one pair consists od=f sex chromosomes or allosomes.